DTU Studieprojekt - Small scale renewable energy plants in Greenland

Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU)

Ph.d. & forskning
Grønland & Færøerne
Storkøbenhavn

Small scale renewable energy plants in Greenland

Udbyder
Vejleder
Sted
Udlandet
Nukissiorfiit wants to develop a standard concept for oil-superseding technology in settlements (less than 500 residents). The technology will be financed by the price of the oil supersession, if possible. The aim is not to produce as many kWh of renewable energy as possible but to supersede as much oil as possible compared to the current oil consumption of the settlement. If our research identifies a solution enabling funding by the price of oil supersession, a test plant will be built as soon as possible (preferably in cooperation with DTU). If our research does not uncover such possibility of funding the need for subsidies must be identified. Limitations
For limitation purposes micro-hydroelectric power plants are disregarded as source of renewable energy. Micro plants are very site-specific and therefore unsuitable for a standard concept. Only renewable solar/wind energy based on price per unit (CAPEX, OPEX) per kW capacity of solar cell/wind turbine will be considered. The various renewable energy technologies and trademarks of solar/wind will not be scrutinized. Nukissiorfiit will pick 1-3 settlements and supply loading data (kW) per hour. Nukissiorfiit will state CAPEX/OPEX for the following equipment producing renewable energy:

  • 25 kW wind turbine
  • 100 kW wind turbine
  • PV solar cells

Desired procedure
The following procedure is recommended:

  • Various solutions are formulated (suggestions below).
  • References for solutions are examined and listed. If no applicable reference plants are available the solution will be dropped.
  • Remaining solutions are modelled in HOMER (Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources). Based on loading data from the settlement, solar data from HOMER, wind data from xx and CAPEX/OPEX of wind/solar energy supplied by Nukissiorfiit, the financially optimal amount of solar/wind is calculated. All solutions stated below include continued use of diesel oil generators to ensure minimal partial supply of the settlement. Possible utilization of residual heat should therefore be included in all solutions below. Several solutions can be executed without input of renewable energy. Such solutions require two models in HOMER, viz. one without renewable energy and another with the financially optimal amount of solar/wind.
  • A report is to be prepared, comparing the various solutions to a basic scenario (supply from diesel generators without utilization of residual heat). As a minimum, the following parameters are measured against the basic scenario: liter diesel/year saved, simple payback and expected investment value.

The report must contain a list of technologies that can be financed through subsidizing by e.g. DKK 1/kWh and DKK 5/kWh etc. Different calculations of the necessary subsidizing can be used if they are deemed more suitable, provide that they are not based on kWh sold/produced.

The report may propose building of a new pilot project (a new Igaliku). Such project must be based on a technology, which HOMER calculations demonstrate fundable by oil supersession, or a technology that requires minimal subsidizing for maximum liters diesel saved.

Preliminary models for supply of a settlement:
Variable speed generators
Variable speed generators with inverter for control of dump load. If exceeding 100 % solar/wind the diesel generator stops, the inverter is grid forming and frequency/balance of impact is controlled by dump load. For further details please go to http://www.innovus-power.com/products/.

Diesel generators with reverse power and disconnectable engine
Diesel generator with a capacity of -10 and 100% of rated output. If exceeding 100% solar/wind supply, the generator absorbs reverse power and the diesel engine is rotated by the generator (generator stands in for engine). If the supply is exceeded even further, coupling opens between engine and generator. The synchronized generator without engine controls the network’s voltage/reactive power. Balance of impact/frequency is controlled by dump load. For further details please go to http://www.danvest.com/.

Grid-forming inverters with battery bank (Igaliku solution)
The inverter balances impact by charging or discharging a battery bank. If solar/wind produces more than the town consumes, the surplus will be transformed into DC in the inverters and flow to the batteries. If solar/wind produces less than the town consumes, the DC from the batteries will be transformed in the inverters into the required AC power. This way, a frequency of 50 Hz is maintained. If the battery bank is fully charged, and if solar/wind produces more than the town consumes, signal goes to solar/wind to limit power to RE= the town’s consumption.

If the battery bank is empty, and if solar/wind produces less than the town consumes, signal goes to a diesel generator to impact the town’s AC network. A power surplus will be created to be used for charging of the batteries.

This plant can be made without RE contribution. In that case, a diesel generator with rated output of e.g. 80% of the daily average will be used. The battery bank holds capacity to balance the 24 hours consumption. This way, the diesel generator always operates at highest efficiency and residual heat is relatively constant.

Enhanced interaction with wind turbine inverter

When more than 100% supply of RE occurs, the diesel generator stops. The wind turbine inverter is grid-forming and controls the network’s voltage/reactive power. Impact balance/frequency is controlled by dump load. When the town’s consumption equals production of wind power the diesel generator starts and synchronizes the network (takes over as master). By sudden drops in wind production the battery supplying the turbine’s inverter in the DC circuit can secure the necessary impact until the diesel generator, starts, synchronizes a I samarbejde med
Nukissiorfiit supply company

Emneord

Kontakt
Virksomhed/organisation
DTU Management Engineering

Navn
Marie Münster

Stilling
Professor MSO

Mail
maem@dtu.dk

Vejleder-info
Kandidatuddannelsen i Bæredygtig Energi
Vejleder
Marie Münster

Medvejledere
Lena Kitzing, Frauke Wiese

ECTS-point
30 - 35

Type
Kandidatspeciale


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Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU) - hurtigt overblik


Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU)
Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU)
DTU er et teknisk eliteuniversitet med international rækkevidde og standard. Vores mission er at udvikle og nyttiggøre naturvidenskab og teknisk videnskab til gavn for samfundet. 11.200 studerende uddanner sig her til fremtiden, og 6.000 medarbejdere har hver dag fokus på uddannelse, forskning, myndighedsrådgivning og innovation, som bidrager til øget vækst og velfærd.

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